The usual method of swapping two numbers, using a temporaty variable is as shown below.
// Swapping 2 int, X & Y using temporary variable t int t = X; X = Y; Y = t;
How will you swap two numbers without using a temporary variable?
Using XOR operator
X = X ^ Y; Y = X ^ Y; X = X ^ Y;
The disadvantage of this method is that it can only be applied to low-level data types like integers & characters (char, short, int, long).
C & C++ does not allow bit-wise operation on non-integral operands.
Using +,- operators
X = X + Y; Y = X - Y; X = X - Y;
This method can only be applied on numerical values (cannot swap two struct or array objects using this method).
The issue of arithmetic overflow will also be there.
For example: If integers are stored in 2 bytes, then the maximum value an int variable can hold will be 32767. Consider below example:
int x = 32760; int y = 20; x = x+y; // ERROR.. Out of range undefined x = x-y; x = x-y;
You will say that the values will move in circle (i.e 32767 + 1 = -32768). But that’s not correct. Overflow (and underflow) behavior in C/C++ is undefined. Hence, compiler can implement it whatever way they want.
If a question is asked that what will be the final values of x and y in above code, the correct answer is “UNDEFINED”.. Hence, the code will not be able to swap x and y.
Using *,/ operators
Similar to above method
Note: None of the above methods (including the method using temporary variable in the question) will work for all cases. For example, if you have an object of a complex class. Then swapping using temporary variable will only do a shallow copying, for those cases you will have to overload assignment operator and copy constructor.